Unlimited Basic Excel Formulas Everyone Needs to Know


What are Excel formulae used for?

Excel formulas are what elevate it from a simple spreadsheet to a productivity tool. They’re expressions in mathematics that help us solve issues and analyze data by simplifying and, at times, automating mathematical and logical activities.

Excel interprets a formula as a command to conduct a computation involving any combination of the four most basic mathematical operations: addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.

The plus, minus, asterisk, and forward slash (+, -, *, /) symbols symbolize these operations, respectively. To signal that the calculation is expected, always begin an Excel formula with an equal (=) symbol.

What Exactly is the Difference Between a Formula and a Function?

  • Excel-defined procedures are formulas. They are Excel’s way of helping you to do complex or commonly used formulas fast without having to develop the task step by step.
  • Because functions are formulas, can begin with an equal sign as well. But the most distinguishing feature of procedures is that they have friendly names created within Excel.
  • There’s the SUM function, which adds values, the LOWER function, which converts text to lowercase, and the COUNTBLANK function, which counts the number of empty cells in a range.
  • Each function contains parameters or values that must be specified in a specific order valid parameters are supplied correctly, and Excel performs the computations and displays the results in the cell where the formula was typed.
  • For instance, here’s how to calculate the average or mean of a set of data. We can input a formula by combining the numbers together using the plus (+) symbol. Also, subsequently dividing the sum by the total number of values in the data set by means of the forward slash (/). Therefore, instead of doing these steps, a pre-built AVERAGE function in Excel available to perform this operation with minimal effort on your behalf.

Note: I obtained all of this knowledge on Excel and how it works from assignments put together by Assignment Writers in UAE.

Various Methods for Inserting Formulas

Excel recognizes formulae (and, by extension, functions) using the equal sign.

1. Using specific numbers

To input a non-function formula in Excel, begin with an equal sign, followed by the equation using ordinary mathematics operators, values that are numerical, and/or cell references.

  • =7+2*2

2. Making use of cell references

You can achieve the same outcome by inputting references to cells that contain the information you want to use in your calculation.

  • =A7+A8*A8

Cell referencing is typically more efficient, especially when numerous formulas make connections with the same cell. However, When you quickly update the source importance.

  • Excel follows the PEMDAS sequence of operations rule (Parentheses – Exponents – Multiplication – Division – Addition – Subtraction). 

3. Various methods for inserting functions

  • Excel has around 400 operations that can be accessed in three different ways:
  • . Enter the function name, beginning with an equal sign, into the cell where you want the output to appear if you have become familiar with it.
  1. Select the Insert Function option from the Formula Bar’s left sidebar. Use the ‘Insert Function’ dialogue box to search for or select a feature from a category. Moreover, when the value or cell references are entered, Methods 2 and 3 give a preview of the output and define each argument.

4. Essential Excel functions to know

  1. What follows is a list of 12 Excel functions that we strongly recommend. Because of the amount they are used, and their value in performing complex tasks. Also, their ability to provide the foundation for other activities.
  2. 1. SUM
  3. The SUM function is used to add values. You can use explicit numerical numbers, cell references, ranges, or some combination of the three. The fundamental syntax is as follows:
  • SUM(number 1, number 2, number 3…)


You should keep in mind that arguments have been separates by commas. Therefore, a gap can also be inserts or removes.


Another function i.e. AVERAGE function is another basic mathematical computation that Excel handles. As previously states, it avoids the requirement for a two-step calculation. Hence, one of our suggests fundamental functions.

  • The AVERAGE function has the following syntax: AVERAGE(number1, [number2],…

But what if you wish to find a different average than the arithmetic mean? For example, suppose you wish to find the mode or median of a set of numbers. To understand more about these functions, visit this average resource.

2. IF

The IF function enters the domain of logical functions. Logical functions are uses to determine if a condition is true or false. Therefore, IF function extends this concept by doing one action if the scenario is true and another one if it is untrue.  This function exemplifies how Excel can transform a simple data sheet into an analytical tool.

  • =The IF function has the following syntax:
  • If (logical_test, [value_if_true], [value_if_false]) is true, then


The SUMIFS function in Excel is really handy. It combines the standard SUM procedure with an IF logical test to include only cells that satisfy several user-defines criteria.

A total of 127 criteria combinations may be provides. Moreover, the cells that are considering a “match” or “qualifying” must meet all of the specifies criteria. SUMIFS outperforms the SUMIF function, which can only assess a single illness at a time.

The SUMIFS syntax is as follows:

SUMIFS(sum_range, criteria_range1, criteria1, [criteria2],…)


The COUNTIFS function belongs to the IF family of functions. It comprises only cells that match all of the criteria. COUNTIFS also beats the COUNTIF function, because can only evaluate one condition at a time.

The formula for COUNTIFS function is as follows:

  • COUNTIFS(criteria_range1, criteria1) COUNTIFS(criteria_range2, criteria2)

The function known as COUNT will count how many cells contain numbers. In contrast, this function provides the total number of factors in a numerical field that is the component of an integer range or a collection of integers. The syntax for the COUNT function is as follows: COUNT([value1], [value2],…


Basic Excel formulae, that concludes our list of the top 12 Excel formulae! Download the practice file and consider how you might utilize these features at work.

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